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Practical research the semantic difference and similarities of colour idioms in the English language

Practical research the semantic difference and similarities of colour idioms in the English language

Менің зерттеу жұмысымның аты: ағылшын тіліндегі түстердің идиомалық классификациясына қарай практикалық талдау.
Жұмыстың мақсаты: түстерді семантикалық мағынасына және ұқсас жақтарына қарай идиомалық топтарға бөліп, мағынасына қарай қолданылуын зерттеу.
Зертеу әдісі: әртүрлі әдебиеттерден, сөздіктерден материалдар жинақтап, олардың мағыналарын ашу.

In English language colours are wide spread in a great deal of indirect meanings, and referring to the group of white colour shades they can have meaning of white, pale, yellow, grey, light red, light yellow, light grey, grayish, yellowish; to the group of black - brown color – shades of black, brown, bay, dark bay, brownish black and etc., as a result of mixing such colors various color emerged.
The symbolic values of all colour white – it is a symbol of happiness, gladness. Every folk have the concepts about colures. For example, in our people a white color symbolizes by gladness, prosperity, honesty

It is undoubtedly that besides the main ways of word formation with the meaning of color naming in national traditions, there are both universal color categories as white color which have various lexical semantic symbolical sense for different meanings It is obvious and known that the given meaning is passed on from one generation into another. Colors in various languages due to their symbolical features, nowadays have other meanings which have no relations to color or have distant semantic linkage to the color. We attempted to make small scientific investigation concerning color semantics in comparative analysis. We tried to reveal the meaningfulness of the most significant colures in Kazakh culture basing on the materials of Kazakh belles - lettres which give opportunity to reflect peculiarity of linguistic consciousness of the ethnos and originality of national culture which cannot be represented without colures spectrum.

When describing the appearance of the hero, for example, when describing the outline
Kazakh people described the face of a beautiful girl like an inspiring, brilliant, bright which concern the bright skin of girl. The words which in Russian are used as the model of beauty like “blood and milk, blue - eye” have meaning of white, And in Kazakhs language for portraying girl’s quality used colors: white face, face like snow, white throat, red lips. In the conscious of folk white, black, red colors mean the beauty, youth. For example, if the girl’s eyes were big and black, such eyes were compared with currant.
The “currant” used to show such quality like beautiful, attractive, kind. Researcher during the analyzing the concept “see” gave following definitions to the white color:

1) beautiful, 2) nice, 3) attractive, 4) kind, 5) happy, 6) attaching, 7) deep, 8) clear, 9) fragile [16, p. 11]. Nevertheless, these colors also can give another different
meaning. There are a lot of examples in the works of great writers and authors, where all the colors used in a different way for reaching defined style. Also we daily often use a word "black eye" for the beautiful woman, and writers in descriptions uses instead of white colour – black.

Idiom is a phrase or expression whose total meaning differs from the meaning of the individual words. For example, an idiom “a black sheep” does not mean “a domestic animal of black colour”, but it means “a worthless person”. Foreign language students must learn them as they learn vocabulary words, because idioms make one third part of the colloquial speech. Idioms are real treasure of each language.
As a word comes to be a very powerful means of communication but also can be a cause of a great misunderstanding if it is not clearly understood by one of the speakers.
The understanding of the native speaker’s language is the international problem for the students. So it is very important to know the peculiarities of different languages. And the term “idiom” comes from Greek “peculiarity”.

English language is official languages they are widely used and flexible. The languages enrich their vocabulary constantly. Due to the changes in modern society there appeared a number of new idioms like “yellow journalism”, ”black market”, “black” and “white” salary. So it is very important to be up - to - date for each language learner nowadays.

There has been done much in studying and classification of idioms. Also the approaches to this problem differ a lot. Still there is much to be studied in the field of idioms. As you see the “ white” and “black” idioms are most frequently used colour idioms. Most people, even today, relate light with the colour white and darkness with black. Painters of the past have used black in an effort to dim a specific colour, and white to order to lighten it. Scientific knowledge has left us with a complete understanding of how the human eye works, and optics has given painters the opportunity to manipulate light more effortlessly. Thus, we have learnt that white light can be resolved into a scale of colures ranging from violet to red, that black is the reversal of the colour due to its ability to absorb all rays of colour, and that pure white and black exist only in theory. Even a surface that appears to be white to us has the slightest tint of yellow, purple or red; likewise, even the dimmest black has tints of colour in it.

If I ask what feelings “white” colour is associated with you’ll probably say “positive”, and respectively “negative” with the colour “black”. On this account I classified “ white” idioms into two groups: idioms, expressing positive meaning and idioms, expressing negative meaning This diversity is the same for idioms. One of the most popular themes for idioms is color. Color is used everywhere in the world gives meaning, and symbolizes different things in different countries. For example, in the US the color of death and mourning is black whereas in China it’s white. Quite often a color symbolizes a feeling or state of mind. Other times, we simply use color in expressions to brighten up our language and make it more interesting. To tell a white lie”

Meaning: To tell a small lie that doesn’t hurt another person.
Usage: We had to tell our mom a white lie about the money. We couldn’t let her know we’d spent it all on chocolate.
“To wave a white flag”
Meaning: To show that you’ve lost (a game, challenge or war) and you give up. Interesting fact: waving a white flag dates back to war time. When one army was losing and they were afraid of losing more men, they waved a white piece of material in the air to show they wanted to stop fighting.
Usage: While I was arguing with my mom about the party I waved a white flag. There was no point in arguing. She wasn’t going to change her mind. )
The Idiom: as white as a ghost
Meaning: very pale because of shock, fear and illness
For example: The thief was as white as a ghost when a policeman came near him.
The Idiom: as white as a sheet
Meaning: pale
For example: She was as white as a sheet because of the illness she had suffered for months.
The Idiom: as white as the driven snow/white as a driven snow
Meaning: very white
For example: His new pullover is as white as driven snow.
The Idiom: white elephant
Meaning: a useless, an unwanted possession that often costs money to maintain
For example: Your car is a white elephant, as it often breaks down, causing you too much expenditure.
The Idiom: white lie
Meaning: a harmless or small lie told to be polite or to avoid hurting someone’s feelings
For example: He told a white lie when his father asked where he was going.
White in British culture is traditionally associated with purity and innocence. See if you can work out the meaning of the following white colour idioms word for word. Then check your understanding by reading examples of how they are used in context. Finally, check again against the explanations given.

go as white as a sheet
white coffee
a white - collar worker
tell a white lie
whiter than white

Жамал Ермегияев атындағы орта мектебі
Ғылыми жетекші: Амиржанова Гульфариза
Орындаған: Еркінбек Дина

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